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A READER'S JOURNAL
An Outline of Occult Science, GA# 13
A Science of Revealed Secrets
Chapter 4 - Evolution of the Cosmos and Humankind
Published by Anthroposophic Press of Hudson/NY in 1972
A Book Review by Bobby Matherne ©2003
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Prologue to Review 2, Chapter 4:
In 1996 when I first read my copy of this book, I wrote a short review of it that you can read in A Reader's Journal, Volume 1. Seven years and over a hundred Steiner books later, it is time for me to devote myself to an in-depth re-reading of this book. I can confirm that what Steiner had to say in those many books, "if inserted in this book in the proper place" would appear as "an amplification of the outline" given in this book. (Page xvi) One cannot appreciate the scope of this book or its degree of condensation unless one understands that all of the words he spoke in over 6,000 lectures from 1900 through 1925 provided an elaboration of some part of this book.
My reasons for re-reviewing this book are threefold. One, it will give me a chance to re-study Occult Science with a grounding of knowledge I didn't have the first time. Two, it gives me a chance to present Steiner's great insights in a vernacular that can reach a greater audience today. Three, I hope to make Steiner's insights available to everyone, mothers, engineers, hairdressers, scientists, managers, philosophers, physiologists, psychologists, and business professionals, among others, not just to anthroposophists. Few people of the 17th Century read Isaac Newton's Principia it was those who read it in Latin and converted Newton's insights into everyday prose who brought about the Newtonian Revolution almost a hundred years later when Edmond Halley's prediction, based on Newton's laws, of the return a comet was confirmed. One hundred years since Steiner began working on this book, it's time for a Steinerian Revolution of thought and spiritual outlook.
To devote myself properly to the task of reviewing this book, I have broken it up into three reviews which will divide the book into three almost equal parts. This review is Review 2 in the list below and is now completed. Make sure that you follow the links to read this entire review. After the Overview or Summary Section that leads off each of the four Stages of Evolution, Saturn, Sun, Moon, and Earth is a link to a Detail Section.For those of you coming back to re-read or finish reading a particular Section, below is a complete set of links:
1. Saturn Stage Summary Details 2. Sun Stage Summary Details 3. Moon Stage Summary Details 4. Earth Stage Summary Details
Reviews 1 and 3 are linked from this review below, and only Review 3 is still being written.
Review 1: Chapters 1, 2, 3 - The Nature of Humankind
Review 2: Chapter 4 - The Evolution of the Cosmos and Humankind
Review 3: Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8 - Initiation, Future of Evolution, Misc. Topics
The thrust of Chapter 4 was given eloquently by Rudolf Steiner in the closing paragraph of Chapter 3, with which we closed Review 1:
[page 99] Only repeated earth lives, in connection with the facts in the spiritual realm between these earth lives as presented by spiritual research, can give a satisfactory explanation of the life of present day humanity, considered from every point of view. The expression "present day" humanity, was intentionally used here, for spiritual research finds that there was a time when the cycle of earth lives began, and that at that time conditions different from those of the present existed for the spiritual being of man as it entered into the corporeal sheath. In the following chapters we shall go back to this primeval state of the human being. When it will have to be shown, from the results of spiritual science, how this human being has attained his present form in relation to the evolution of the earth, we shall then be able to point out still more exactly how the spiritual essential core of man penetrates into the physical body from supersensible worlds, and how the spiritual law of causation "human destiny" is developed.
Imagine that we wish to describe the building of a large passenger airliner such as the Boeing 767. First we would have to describe what comprised the major components of the airplane, then we would be in a position to describe the conceptualization process which led to the design, the shell construction phase, the laying in of all the hydraulic, electrical, and signal cables inside the shell, the final assembly and rollout of the plane, and its subsequent first flight. I had occasion once when I worked for Lockheed Aircraft Co. in 1971 to fly to Palmdale, California, to visit the assembly floor for the Lockheed L1011 jetliner. Standing on the edge of the high mezzanine floor, I looked down upon about five huge airplanes in the process of assembly. To my far left the fuselage frame was being assembled. As I looked to the right, I could see the fuselage had been turned over to allow workers to assemble ceiling components by bending down instead of working overhead. To the right of that, the fuselage was righted again and the wings and the wheels were attached. To far right was a completed plane sitting in the open door, ready to be rolled out for its testing phase.
In Chapters 1, 2, and 3, Steiner laid out the components of the human being into four subsystems, if you will, the physical body, the etheric body, the astral body, and the Ego body. In Chapter 4, he's going to take us up to the mezzanine to describe the four stages of the assembly process of the human being. To the far left he will describe the assembly of the "fuselage" equivalent of the human being, the physical body. He will call this stage of development the "Old Saturn" stage. Like in our airplane construction metaphor, there was nothing else on the production floor during this stage the Old Saturn stage began with an emptiness and ended with a shell of a fuselage into which tubes, wires, and cables would be later inserted to bring it to "life" as an operational airplane. That will happen in the next stage of human evolution and is called the "Old Sun" stage during which the physical body will be fitted with a living etheric body. From there Steiner will describe the next stage of human development, the "Old Moon" stage during which the human being will awaken to a dreaming sleep by the insertion of the astral body. This could be considered equivalent in my crude airplane metaphor for a plane which has reached the live testing of all its systems on the ground prior to its first test flight. Next Steiner will describe the "Earth" stage during which the human being will awaken to consciousness of itself by the insertion of the Ego body or "I am." At this point in our metaphor, the plane is ready for its first test flight and for full operation for its designed use. Look again at Figure 1 (from Review 1), and we note that we are looking at, in sequence, the four productions stages of human evolution as the four bodies are created, and as the processes along the bottom of the figure are brought successively into being: Life --> Consciousness --> Memory.
During each stage, a successive body of the human being is brought to realization inside of the previously existing stage of development, just as happens inside the airplane during construction: first the fuselage is built where nothing existed before, just an empty place on the production floor and a chaos of building materials which are assembled until finally, the entire fuselage is completed. What Steiner is giving us in Chapter 4 is an overview look at the "production floor" and showing us the four stages of human evolutionary development laid out in a panorama before our eyes. In Figure 7 below we have added names to the four stages along with the bodies that are developed during each stage. In addition we show the "seed" stage, during which the preparation is made for the next stage. The seed stage lasts just as long as the evolutionary development stage preceding it, just as a seed from a plant may reside in the Earth for as long as the plant lived during the time it produced the seed. This "seed" stage in the Eastern religions is called a "pralaya" which is defined as "a period of dissolution or destruction of the manifested universe." What the dictionary definition does not include is the seed of the manifested universe that survives the period of pralaya which prepares it for receiving the next level of evolutionary development. For example, the physical body must dissolve, leaving behind a seed of its Old Saturn development in order to be ready to receive into it the etheric body of the Old Sun stage. In our airplane metaphor, the seed stage might be likened to the flipping of the fuselage over to work on its overhead components, during which rotation, no work can be done.
Theory of Process:
Before we proceed further in describing the process of evolution, it will be useful to take a short side trip into describing the process of process. I came upon this concept about 25 years ago studying Arthur M. Young's works, The Bell Notes, The Geometry of Meaning, and especially The Reflexive Universe, which is subtitled, Evolution of Consciousness. Arthur M. Young designed the helicopter and discovered an example of how evolution works: (all quotations in this section from The Reflexive Universe, 1976, are marked TRU.)
[TRU: page xix-xx, Introduction] I found by experience that without purpose, without a goal-directed activity, the helicopter could not possibly have evolved.
Because of its analogous function of building from blueprints, we might liken the assembly line to DNA. Evolution, it is supposed, is due to accidental mutations in the DNA. But the helicopter assembly line brought home to me quite forcibly that there is a built-in predisposition in what formerly had been an airplane assembly line to resist the change to helicopters and revert to airplane manufacture. This could be counteracted only by constant vigilance. As a crowning touch, when the manufacture was transferred to Texas and new equipment was required, the equipment ordered was that for the manufacture of airplanes. The error was caught in time, but by a person outside the manufacturing organization, one of the helicopter team.
Purpose is the important factor in developing a machine. The tendency of philosophers who know nothing of machinery to talk of man as a mere mechanism intending by this to imply he is without purpose shows a lack of understanding of machines as well as of man. Indeed, there was never a machine that did not have a purpose.
An eloquent case for the necessity of goal-directed purpose was later made by Don Cruse and Robert Zimmer in their 2002 book Evolution and the New Gnosis.
Arthur Young describes how he became interested in ancient myths and discovered that the universe itself seemed to come into being in seven stages. He says that this was his first hint that "process involves seven stages." His friend, Harry Smith, reminded him "that the torus or doughnut has a unique topology, such that a map drawn on its surface requires seven colors in order for all bordering countries to be distinguished by differences in color," whereas ordinary surfaces such as planes or spheres only require four colors. This rather abstract mathematical relationship reinforced for the natural scientist part of Young the idea that the grouping of things into seven stages by the ancients was real and it pointed to the intrinsic nature of anything that could be called a process. The doughnut shape shows up clearly in smoke rings, and, stretched a bit, in thunderstorms, hurricanes, and all other natural phenomena that have self-sustaining motion for a time.
If you'll remember some of the first video games such as "Asteroids" where, when the asteroid went off the top of the screen, it re-appeared at the bottom and when it went off the left side, it re-appeared coming from the left side of the screen what you were watching was motion that occurred on a doughnut shaped geometry. If you hold a doughnut in front of you and trace a pencil line up, it will disappear around the inside of the doughnut and re-appear at the bottom; and likewise, going left, the line will disappear and re-appear from the right. To keep the asteroids moving constantly in self-sustaining motion required a toroidal or doughnut shape to accomplish the feat.
[TRU: page xxi] Since colors are distinctions, it occurred to me that, just as the sphere may be thought of as analogous to structure, so the torus may be analogous to process. If so, its seven colors would correspond to the seven stages which might be expected in process.
Now the torus shape, which is also that of a vortex, occurs widely in natural phenomena: it is the shape of a magnetic field, of a tornado, and of eddies in water. And especially interesting is the fact that it is the only manner by which self-sustained motion can exist in a given medium.
Not only does a process in its most general form involve seven stages, but it has a definite shape (See Figure 8.) which Arthur Young outlines for us and describes how it evolves from a fall into determinism followed by a rise into freedom. He begins his thoughts by pointing out that in the world of quantum reality, "The individual particle does not obey laws."
[TRU: page 7] Why is this important? Because here in science we discover that the evolution of matter is itself a "fall." By fall we mean loss of freedom, increase of constraint. This occurs in steps: first the condensing of the original energy of the photon into mass to form a charged particle, then the joining of opposite charges to form a neutral atom, then of atoms to form molecules, and finally the compaction of molecules into inert objects. In this declension the original freedom is lost: the free motion of one particle is canceled by the free motion of another, so that where billions of particles are compacted, there results an inert object, which having no self motion, responds to exact laws.
It is these inert objects that are the basis for the so-called universal laws. It is these objects and only these that do not move unless pushed.
We must therefore interpret the generation of matter of the universe itself as a fall into determinism.
If the story of the universe stopped here, there would be no story because there would be no humans to tell and write the story. After the fall into determinate matter, the process curve hits the bottom and begins to move upward as life is injected into the determinate matter. Young takes a natural scientist's look at the seven stages of process and comes up with the diagram on page 91 of The Reflexive Universe, shown in Figure 9. This is the Process of Evolution applied to the sensory world. If you understand that molecules are the basis for all minerals, then you can see the four kingdoms of Minerals, Plants, Animals, and Man climbing up the right hand side of the process curve. This curve is useful because it shows us the key elements of process: a fall into determinism, followed by a rise that occurs in the fourth step. We will find exactly the same process happens when we consider human evolution as it proceeds through the physical body, the etheric body, the astral body, and Ego body. In the fourth stage, the Ego development stage during Earth, the Ego will be formed and human being will emerge from their deterministic heritage into freedom, during the fourth stage of the evolution of the cosmos, Earth. We will be able by the end of this review to draw the process curve for the microcosmic world of the human being as well as the macrocosmic world of the universe, and understand it. That is my goal for you, dear Reader.
We can expect to revisit the process curve often and to harvest new insights from it with each visit. Figure 9 is the results of a natural scientist's thinking applied to understanding process and we will find his insights helpful as we progress through the evolutionary process described by a spiritual scientist, Rudolf Steiner, as he uncovers the veils from occult science and reveals the spiritual scaffolding of our very existence for all to see, what previously, in our time, only a few had seen.
Saturn Stage Details(Click Here to Read)
Etheric Body Evolution - The Sun Stage:
The Sufis, those itinerant dervishes and mystics of the Near East whose deep spirituality is independent of any religion, have an old saying that goes,
God slept in the mineral kingdom,
He dreamed in the plant kingdom,
He awoke in the animal kingdom and
He realized Himself in the human.
Since the word God refers to spiritual beings of hierarchies higher than our own, the Sufi saying can be interpreted as referring to the work done by the spiritual hierarchies on the physical heat bodies of humans during the Saturn stage of evolution. The activities of God in each stage precedes the level of consciousness the human being is to acquire by the end of that stage and is to develop through the extent of the next evolutionary stage.
At the beginning of Saturn, human beings had no consciousness at all only what can be thought of as a deep unconsciousness or a deep trance consciousness. At the completion of God's dreamless sleep in the physical body during Saturn, the physical body, which began Saturn in complete unconsciousness, had developed an advanced state of consciousness referred to as dreamless sleep, the dreamless sleep that God had bestowed upon us during Saturn. After the Sun stage of evolution during which the Sufis say, "God dreamed in the plant kingdom", humans in the Moon stage of evolution developed the ability of dreaming sleep. After the Moon stage during which the Sufis say, "God awoke in the animal kingdom," humans developed an Ego by the beginning of the Earth stage and began to realize themselves. Thus, we can understand the Sufi saying if we realize that the Gods live through or experience in us during one stage of evolution what we as humans will experience in ourselves during the next. Even as we develop our Ego during this current Earth stage, we can know that the Gods are experiencing in us the Imagination or conscious picture consciousness that will become a common human ability by the end of the Earth stage as we will proceed into Jupiter. From there we proceed to Inspiration during Venus, and Intuition during Vulcan.
It should not surprise anyone that we humans recapitulate or relive in the course of a day's activities the stages of our evolution, Saturn, Sun, Moon, and Earth during the night we fall into dreamless sleep, then dreaming sleep, then we awake, stand up and realize ourselves. This process is repeated daily.
It would likely surprise many people to learn that the days of the week also mirror our progress through the stages of evolution. Notice the days of the week: Saturday (Saturn-day), Sunday (Sun-day), Monday (Moon-day). The next two days are Tuesday (Mars-day, in french, Mardi) and Wednesday (Mercury-day, in french, Mercredi) and together these two days represent the Earth stage of evolution. The next two days are Thursday (Jupiter-day, in french, Jeudi, or Jove-day) and Friday (Venus-day, in french, Vendredi). If you will look at the Sevens Table, you'll see that these seven day-names match the progress of the first six stages of evolution: Saturn, Sun, Moon, Earth (Mars/Mercury), Jupiter, and Venus. Thus in the course of a week, we humans recapitulate the scope of evolution.
As we found in studying Saturn, the name of the stage refers both to a time period and to a location in space. During the Sun stage, the events described later in this chapter happen in the center of the sphere that was originally called Saturn. The Sun events happened only after the outer planets have been stripped off of Saturn. In addition, the initial Sun-sphere at the start of Sun must have been much larger than the current Sun. The celestial body of the Sun today is a condensation of the much larger body during Sun which contained what we currently call the Earth and the Moon, among other inner planets including Mars and Mercury.
Before the Saturn stage can proceed to the Sun stage, it must undergo a period of "cosmic sleep" during which time it issues forth as a new cosmic being. Going from Saturn to Sun is very much like high school seniors graduating and arriving at college in the States. During college orientation they must review their four high school stages of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior, and learn how to understand these stages at a higher level in order to get their college career off to a successful start. Only after a proper orientation to the conditions of college life can the wisdom offered by the professors begin to flow into the new college students.
[page 135, 136] The germinal human being, however, first appears on the newly formed Sun just as it was at the end of the Saturn evolution. It must first transform the various evolutionary stages that it had reached on Saturn, so that they conform with the conditions on the Sun. The Sun epoch, therefore, begins with a recapitulation of the occurrences on Saturn, but adjusted to the changed conditions of the life of the Sun, When the human being has developed to the point where the stage of his evolution acquired on Saturn conforms to the conditions of the Sun, the already mentioned Spirits of Wisdom begin to let the ether or life body flow into the human physical body. The more advanced stage that man attains on the Sun may be characterized by saying that the physical body, germinally formed already on Saturn, is raised to a second stage of perfection by becoming the bearer of an ether or life body.
Sun Stage DetailsClick Here to Read.
Astral Body Evolution - The Moon Stage:
A Brief Summary: The Big Picture
Let's do a brief summary of how we got to the Moon stage and where we are heading: during Saturn, the human being existed only as a heat body, during Sun, the human being acquired a gaseous body which bubbled through the heat body like sap flows through a plant during our present Earth stage. During Moon human beings will add a fluid or watery body to the heat and gaseous body. These three aspects of heat, air, and gaseous states exist within us yet today in our warm-blooded nature, our respiration of air, and the 90% of our body that consists of water or fluids. By reviewing the stages of human evolution, we are watching as the components of the human body are progressively built up in stages beginning with the finest material exuded from the spiritual world by the Spirits of Will ( heat body stuff ) during Saturn, to aeriform or gaseous material constructed during Sun, to fluid or water material formed during Moon, and ending in our age with mineral-based solids that fill the other 10% of our physical body phantom during Earth.
In every breath we take heat is added to the gases we inhale, the gases are absorbed in our lungs, moisture is added to that in our body, and mineral substances such as carbon and other trace elements are added to our body. A similar process happens with every bite we take when we eat. Human life as we know it exists as in a constant equilibrium with the elements of heat, air, water, and earth.
As human beings are formed in each stage of evolution, the configuration of planetary bodies in the cosmos changes in synchrony with changes in human bodies. Heres a brief summary of the planetary bodies at each stage. During Saturn, there is only one sphere of diffuse spiritual substance filling the current space of our Solar System outlined today by the orbit of the planet we call Saturn. Coincidence or deep truth? You decide. During Sun, the one sphere divides in two. One sphere is composed of an aeriform substance which begins to radiate. It sits in the middle of the space of the previous single sphere. The other sphere is called the new Saturn sphere and it exists outside of the first sphere, but both fit in the original Old Saturn space. The radiating sphere contains the bodies we call Sun, Moon, and Earth today and the new Saturn sphere eventually devolves into the planet we call Saturn today. During Moon, the radiating sphere cleaves into two parts: one becomes a purified, radiating body we call the Sun today and the other becomes a body we call Old Moon or simply Moon which contains everything that we know as the Earth and the Moon today. Upon the completion of Moon, another cleaving in twain occurs and the Earth and the Moon separate and humans enter the stage of evolution called simply, Earth.
As a physicist, I would like to know exactly what planets were created during what stages of evolution, but in this book, Steiner doesn't give us those details. The details he does give us are the ones required for us to understand how the human being evolved in concert with the evolution of the Solar System, especially those bodies with which we are most closely connected during our evolution. Human beings ended up on the planetary body called Earth. Other spiritual beings ended up on the various other planets. In the region of the cosmos inside the star we know as our Sun reside the most highly evolved of the spiritual beings who were intimately involved with our very creation during the Old Saturn or Saturn stage of our earliest beginning. "In the beginning I was there," Christ Jesus said, in direct reference to a reality of our evolution that few have understood rightly, up until now (4). That the Christ being should have continued its evolution and existence in the brightest region of our Solar System should not at all seem strange the intrinsic interconnection of our concepts of wisdom and light pervades our very understanding of the meanings of the two words.
My advice to those who are overwhelmed by all the novel concepts and strange terms which fill this book is this: keep in mind the big picture as you fill in some of the details while you read along. If you have ever worked on a jigsaw puzzle, you know how invaluable the photo of the completed puzzle on the box of pieces is! And how frustrating it is when you're working on a partially completed puzzle and you find a piece that doesn't seem to go anywhere at all. This is especially true when only a scant outline of the puzzle is before you, but as the puzzle builds itself out, your job of completion gets progressively easier. Soon everything is easy to fit into the correct place. The Solar System and our human evolution within it is like a gigantic jigsaw puzzle we each need someone to help us to locate those crucial corner pieces, the outline pieces, and to fill in some of the huge empty space with local accumulations of interconnected puzzle pieces. But in the end, the job of completing the puzzle is a do-it-yourself job. This review can be considered as setting up for you the corner pieces and edge pieces and some local finished areas around which you can begin to finish the puzzle for yourself. When you finish this comprehensive review, there will be many open areas scattered in your puzzle, but with furthering reading of Steiner's lectures and books, you will be able, for all practical purposes, to complete your puzzle.
Moon Stage DetailsClick Here to Read.
Ego Evolution - The Earth Stage:
A Brief Summary: The Physical Body Enters the Mineral Condition of Life
Rightly understood, the Earth is the resurrected Moon. The Moon of the Old Moon stage of evolution splits in twain, the larger portion forms the planetary body of the Earth that we all live on, and the smaller portion forms the planetary body which orbits the Earth that we call today the Moon. The Moon, as we know from the sensory experience of the Apollo astronauts, has a surface composed of desiccated rock covered with a fine dry dust. When the splitting off of the Moon occurred, the desiccated portion was removed in order to provide a suitable living environment for the humans who were going to inhabit the Earth in bodies to be infused with mineral substances for the first time. Those mineral bodies will be the vehicles for the physical bodies of the human beings during the entire extent of the Earth phase of evolution. Given that we are currently in the midst of this phase, we will not be considering the succeeding phases post-Earth except to point out that Earth will be followed by Jupiter, Venus, and Vulcan. These three post-Earth stages will find enormous changes in human beings which Steiner describes in Chapter 6: "The Present and Future of Cosmic and Human Evolution."
If we examine Figure 13 we will find the left side of the process diagram shows the development stages we have been through prior to the current stage, namely these:Saturn - during which we developed a Physical body
Sun - during which we developed an Etheric body
Moon - during which we developed an Astral body
In addition, we arrived at the Earth stage with an incipient Ego body which now, shortly past the middle of the Earth stage is becoming fully operational and able to take part in the evolution of our human bodies during the remainder of the Earth stage as shown in the right hand side of the process diagram.
During the second portion of the current stage, we are each, to a greater or lesser extent, refining the bodies on the left hand side of the diagram to create the bodies on the right hand side. In other words, by applying our Ego, we are refining our Astral body into the Spirit Self or manas. This spiritualization of the Astral body is crucial for our evolution as a human being. The next stage involves the refining or spiritualization of the Etheric body into the Life Spirit or buddhi. The final stage is the refining or spiritualization of the Physical body into the Spirit Body or atman.
Notice that we are performing the spiritualization in the reverse order that the bodies to be refined were originally formed during our evolution: Astral, Etheric, and finally Physical body. The reason for this is that the refining process gets more difficult as we move towards the Physical body, the toughest of the three to perform the spiritualization process upon. Which stage of spiritualization process each of us are in is an individual matter. Some folks are working on parts of all three phases at the same time. Whatever stage we are each in, we will arrive at the completion of the Earth stage with our three spiritual bodies fully formed.Earth Stage Details Click Here to Read.
This is the end of the "An Outline of Occult Science" Chapter 4 Section of the Review. Click Here to continue Reading Chapters 5, 6, 7 and 8.
---------------------------- Footnotes -----------------------------------------
1. For ease of presentation, I will drop "Old" and "stage of evolution" and italicize the Names of the stages of evolution from now on. Thus Saturn, Sun, Moon, and Earth will refer only to stages of evolution, while Saturn, Sun, Moon, and Earth will refer to planetary bodies. These stages are called "Conditions of Consciousness" or Manvantaras in theosophical terminology.Return to text directly before Footnote 1.
2. Though the physical body phantom's nature is essentially unchanged from Saturn to Earth, during the seed stage or pralaya between Saturn and Sun, the physical body is purified during its dissolution so that when it is reconstituted during Sun, it will be capable of absorbing the etheric body, as we shall see later.Return to text directly before Footnote 2.
3. Note that these four states of physicality are sometimes referred to as the four elements of: fire, air, water, and earth.Return to text directly before Footnote 3.
4. Hebrews 1:8 -- "And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands."Return to text directly before Footnote 4.
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